Passive Voice - Câu bị động

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Passive Voice - Câu bị động

Use of Passive

Passive voice is used when the focus is on the action. It is not important or not known, however, who or what is performing the action.
Example: My bike was stolen.
In the example above, the focus is on the fact that my bike was stolen. I do not know, however, who did it.

Sometimes a statement in passive is more polite than active voice, as the following example shows:
Example: A mistake was made.
In this case, I focus on the fact that a mistake was made, but I do not blame anyone (e.g. You have made a mistake.).

Form of Passive
Subject + finite form of to be + Past Participle (3rd column of irregular verbs)
Example: A letter was written.
When rewriting active sentences in passive voice, note the following:
- the object of the active sentence becomes the subject of the passive sentence
- the finite form of the verb is changed (to be + past participle)
- the subject of the active sentence becomes the object of the passive sentence (or is dropped)

Examples of Passive
Simple Present
Active: John writes a letter
Passive: A letter is written by John

Present Progressive
Active: John is writing a letter
Passive: A letter is being written by John

Simple Past
Active: John wrote a letter
Passive: A letter was written by John

Past Progressive
Active: John was writing a letter
Passive: A letter was being written by John

Present Perfect
Active: John has written a letter
Passive: A letter has been written by John

Past Perfect
Active: John had written a letter
Passive: A letter had been written by John

Future I
Active: John will write a letter
Passive: A letter will be written by John

Future II
Active: John will have written a letter
Passive: A letter will have been written by John

Conditional I
Active: John would write a letter
Passive: A letter would be written by John

Conditional II
Active: John would have written a letter
Passive: A letter would have been written by John

Can/ May/ ....
Active: John can write a letter
Passive: A letter can be written by John

Passive Sentences with Two Objects
Rewriting an active sentence with two objects in passive voice means that one of the two objects becomes the subject, the other one remains an object. Which object to transform into a subject depends on what you want to put the focus on.

Example:
Active: John wrote a letter to me
Passive: A letter was written to me by John
Or: I was written a letter by John

As you can see in the examples, adding by John does not sound very elegant. That’s why it is usually dropped.

Personal and Impersonal Passive
Personal Passive simply means that the object of the active sentence becomes the subject of the passive sentence. So every verb that needs an object (transitive verb) can form a personal passive.
Example: They build houses. – Houses are built.

Verbs without an object (intransitive verb) normally cannot form a personal passive sentence (as there is no object that can become the subject of the passive sentence). If you want to use an intransitive verb in passive voice, you need an impersonal construction – therefore this passive is called Impersonal Passive.
Example: he says – it is said

Impersonal Passive is not as common in English as in some other languages (e.g. German, Latin). In English, Impersonal Passive is only possible with verbs of perception (e. g. say, think, know).
Example: They say that women live longer than men. – It is said that women live longer than men.

Although Impersonal Passive is possible here, Personal Passive is more common.
Example: They say that women live longer than men. – Women are said to live longer than men.

The subject of the subordinate clause (women) goes to the beginning of the sentence; the verb of perception is put into passive voice. The rest of the sentence is added using an infinitive construction with 'to' (certain auxiliary verbs and that are dropped).

Sometimes the term Personal Passive is used in English lessons if the indirect object of an active sentence is to become the subject of the passive sentence.

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