A. CÁC ĐIỂM NGỮ PHÁP CHÍNH: I. Thì: 1. Simple present(Hiện tại đơn): Be-> am/ is/ are Have-> have/ has khẳng định phủ định nghi vấn He/ she/ it + V-s/es I/ You/ We/ They +V He/ she/ it + doesn’t + V I/ You/ We/ They +don’t + V Does + he/ she/ it +V? Do + I/ you/ we/ they +V? Use: a. Diễn tả thói quen ở hiện tại : b.Diễn tả sự thật, chân lí Trạng từ thường gặp: never, sometimes, usually, often, always, as a rule, normally… Ex: -Mr Vy usually gets up at 4:40 a.m -Do you go to school on Sunday? -Lan doesn’t know how to use a computer. 2. Present continuous (Hiện tại tiếp diễn) S + am/ is/ are + Ving Use: a. Diễn tả hành động đang xảy ra ở thời điểm nói b. Diễn tả dự định tương lai có mốc thời gian cụ thể. Trạng từ thường gặp: now, at present, at this moment, right now Ex: -I’m learning English now -My mother isn’t cooking lunch at this moment. -What are you doing this evening? 3. Present perfect (Hiện tại hoàn thành): S+ have/ has/ + PP khẳng định phủ định nghi vấn He/ She/ It +has +PP I/ You/ We/ They +have + PP He/ She/ It +hasn’t +PP I/ You/ We/ They +haven’t + PP Has+ He/ She/ It +PP? Have+ I/ You/ We/ They + PP? Use: a. Diễn tả hành động xảy ra trong quá khứ kéo dài đến hiện tại b. Diễn tả hành động xảy ra trong quá khứ để lại kết quả ở hiện tại c. Diễn tả kinh nghiệm Trạng từ thường gặp : never, just, ever, recently, already, yet, lately, for, since, so far…. Ex: -They have just built a hospital in this area -Tom hasn’t eaten Chinese food before -How long have you lived here? 4. Simple past (Quá khứ đơn) Be-> was/ were Have/ has-> had khẳng định phủ định nghi vấn S+ V-ed/V2 S+ didn’t + V Did+S +V? Use: Diễn tả hành động xảy ra và kết thúc trong quá khứ. Trạng từ thường gặp : yestersay, ago, last…. Ex : - I went to three day ago -Did you watch TV last night? -Peter wasn’t at home yesterday evening 5. Past continuous (Quá khứ tiếp diễn) : S+ was/ were + Ving Use: Diễn tả hành động đang xảy ra tại 1 thời điểm quá khứ Ex: - I was watching TV at 5 p.m yesterday. -Were they having lunch when you called? 6. Past perfect (Quá khứ hoàn thành) S+ had + PP Use: Diễn tả hành động xảy ra và hoàn thành trước 1 hành động khác ở quá khứ. Trạng từ thường gặp : after, before 7. Simple future (tương lai đơn): khẳng định phủ định nghi vấn S+ will + V1 S+ won’t + V1 Will + S + V1? Use : Diễn tả hành động sẽ xảy ra trong tương lai . Trạng từ thường gặp : Tomorrow, next……. Ex : -Will you go to university after you finish school? -I will say goodbye to you before I leave Danang -Mary won’t go to the party because she has to do her homework. Bài tập áp dụng: Exercise I : Put the verbs in brackets in the present simple or the present continuous tense. 1/ I (have) __________ coffee for breakfast every day. 2/ My brother (work) __________ in a shoe store this summer. 3/ The student (look) ___________ up that new word now. 4/ She (go) __________ to school every day. 5/ We (do) __________ this exercise at the moment. 6/ My mother (cook) ___________ some food in the kitchen at present. She always (cook) __________ in the mornings. 7/ It (rain) __________ very much in the summer. It (rain) _________ now. 8/ Bad students never (work) __________ hard. 9/ He generally (sing) ________ in English, but today he (sing) ________ in Spanish. 10/ We seldom (eat) __________ before 6.30. Exercise II : Put the verbs in brackets in the present perfect or the simple past tense. 1/ We (never watch) __________ that TV programme. 2/ We (watch) __________ a good programme on TV last night. 3/ He (read) __________ that novel many times before. 4/ I (have) __________ a little trouble with my car last week. 5/ However, I (have) __________ no trouble with my car since then. 6/ I (not see) __________ John for a long time. I (see) __________ him 3 weeks ago. 7/ I (meet) __________ Mary last night. She (become) __________ a very big girl. 8/ He is very thirsty. He (not drink) __________ since this morning. 9/ It is very hot. Summer (come) __________. 10/ Mr Brown (travel) __________ by air several times in the past. Exercise III : Put the verbs in brackets in the past simple or the past continuous tense. 1/ He (sit) __________ in a bar when I (see) __________ him. 2/ When I (go) __________ out, the sun (shine) __________. 3/ The light (go) __________ out while I (have) __________ tea. 4/ When it (rain) __________ , she(carry) __________ an umbrella. 5/ We (walk) __________ to the station when it (begin) __________ to rain. Exercise IV : Put the verbs in brackets in the simple present or the simple future tense. 1/ We (go) __________ out when the rain (stop) __________. 2/ I (stay) _________ here until he (answer) __________ me. 3/ Wait until I (catch) __________ you. 4/ I (be) _________ ready before you (count) _________ ten. 5/ John must eat his breakfast before he (go) __________ out. 6/ Miss Helen (help) __________ you as soon as she (finish) ________ that letter. 7/ He (tell) _________ you when you (get) __________ there. 8/ She (not come) __________ until you (be) _________ ready. 9/ He (tell) __________ you when you (ask) __________ him. 10/ I (come) _______ and (see) ________ you before I (leave) _____ for England. Exercise V : Supply the correct tense. 1/ They (just decide) __________ that they (undertake) ___________ the job. 2/ We (go) ___________ to the theatre last night. 3/ He usually (write) __________ in green ink. 4/ She (play) _________ the piano when our guests (arrive) _________ last night. 5/ We (do) __________ an English exercise at the moment. 6/ I (come) _________ as soon as my work is finished. (You be) ________ ready ? 7/ Where (you go) __________ for your holiday last year ? 8/ I (not leave) ________ Paris since we (go) _______ to Dieppe three years ago. 9/ My mother (come) __________ to stay with us next weekend. 10/ We (meet) __________ only yesterday and (already decide) __________ to get married. 11/ I (never see) __________ snow. 12/ Violets (bloom) __________ in spring. 13/ We (not live) ___________ in England for the last two months. 14/ I (lose) ________ my keys; I cannot remember where I last (see) ______ them. 15/ Whenever you (go) _________ to town nowadays, you (spend) _________ a lot of money. 16/ They (prepare) __________ the Christmas dinner today. 17/ When I last (stay) ___________ in Cairo, I (ride) __________ to the Pyramids on a camel that my friend (borrow) ____________ the day before. 18/ I (finish) ___________ the book before my next birthday. 19/ “Hello! (You make) __________ a cake ? 20/ He (walk) __________ very quickly when I (meet) __________ him yesterday. 21/ We (meet) _________ you tomorrow after you (finish) __________ your work. 22/ Yesterday I (buy) ________ a new watch as my old one (be) _________ stolen.