Conjunction(liên từ) có gì mới??

Trong chuyên mục 'Writing (Viết)' đăng bởi Newsun, 20/4/2010. — 4.023 Lượt xem

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    Conjunction(liên từ) có gì mới??

    LIÊN TỪ
    (Conjunctions)

    1. Định nghĩa:Liên từ là từ dùng để nối các từ loại, cụm từ hay mệnh đề. 2. Phân loại:Liên từ được chia làm hai loại chính: a. Đẳng lập (song song): Dùng loại liên từ này để nối những các từ loại hoặc cụm từ/ nhóm từ cùng một loại, hoặc những mệnh đề ngang hàng nhau (tính từ với tính từ, danh từ với danh từ...): Ví dụ: He and I are students. She is beautiful and kind. They are learning to read and write.

    b. Liên từ phụ thuộc:
    Loại liên từ phụ thuộc nối kết các nhóm từ, cụm từ hoặc mệnh đề có chức năng khác nhau - mệnh đề phụ với mệnh đề chính trong câu

    3. Những liên từ Đẳng lập (song song):
    Những liên từ Đẳng lập gồm:
    AND
    Ví dụ: She is a good and loyal wife. I have many books and notebooks.

    BOTH ... AND
    Ví dụ: She is both good and loyal. They learn both English and French.

    AS WELL AS
    Ví dụ: He has experience as well as knownledge.

    NO LESS THAN
    Ví dụ: You no less than he are very rich.

    NOT ONLY ... BUT (ALSO)
    Ví dụ: He learns not only English but but (also) Chinese. I like playing not only tennis but (also) football.
    OR
    Ví dụ: Hurry up, or you will be late.

    EITHER...OR
    Ví dụ: He isn't either good or kind. I don't have either books or notebooks.

    NEITHER ... NOR
    Ví dụ: He drinks neither wine nor beer. She has neither husband nor children.

    BUT
    Ví dụ: He is intelligent but very lazy. She is ugly but hard-working.

    THEN
    Ví dụ: you have eaten nothing; then you must be very hungry. The plant looks very faded; then it hasn't been watered for long.

    CONSEQUENTLY
    Ví dụ: You didn't work hard for this term; consequently, he failed the exam.

    HOWEVER
    Ví dụ: He is a very lazy student; however, he can pass all the exams easily. It was raining very hard; however, we went out without umbrellar.

    NEVERTHELESS
    Ví dụ: She studies very hard; nevertheless, she always gets bad marks.

    STILL, YET
    Ví dụ: I speak to You peaceably; still/yet you will not listen. She says she does not love me, yet, I still love her.

    OR, ELSE, OTHERWISE
    Ví dụ: We have to work hard, or/else/otherwise we will fail the exam.

    ONLY
    Ví dụ: Go where you like; only do not stay here.

    THEREFORE
    Ví dụ: He violated the traffic signs, therefore he was punished.

    4. Những liên từ phụ thuộc (chính phụ):
    Những liên từ phụ thuộc:
    FOR
    Ví dụ: He will surely succeed, for (because) he works hard.

    WHEREAS
    Ví dụ: He learns hard whereas his friends don't.
    Wise men love truth whereas fools avoid it.

    WHILE
    Ví dụ: Don't sing while you work.
    Don't talk while you eat.

    BESIDES, MOREOVER
    Ví dụ: We have to study hard at school; besides, we must pay attention
    to physical exercise.
    He stole two watches; moreover, he broke the window.
    SO
    Ví dụ: He is a good teacher; so, he is very popular with students.
    It rained very hard; so, we didn't go out that night.

    HENCE
    Ví dụ: I had not money about me; hence I did not buy the book.
    He came late; hence, he missed the first part of the lesson.


    - Liên từ nối mệnh đề (như trạng ngữ):
    a. Thời gian (Time):

    AFTER
    Ví dụ: A man shoud take a little rest, after he has worked hard.
    The ship was checked carefully after she had been built.

    AS
    Ví dụ: He came her, as the clock struck six.
    They left as the bell rang..

    AS SOON AS
    Ví dụ: I will phone you as soon as I come home.
    They will get married as soon as they finish university.

    BEFORE
    Ví dụ: Don't count your chickens before they are hatchd.
    He talks as if he were very wise.
    .
    Ví dụ: He has been very weak, since he was taken sick.

    AS LONG AS
    Ví dụ: No one can harm us, as long as we remain friends.
    I will lend you some money as long as you promise to pay me back.

    UNTIL
    Ví dụ: People do not know the value of health until they lose it.

    WHEN
    Ví dụ: When you visit this country, you should bring thick winter clothes.

    WHILE
    Ví dụ: Make hay while the sun shines.
    Step while you dance.

    b. Nơi chốn (Places):
    WHERE
    Ví dụ: The bed room is the best place where I do my homework.


    WHEREVER
    Ví dụ: His mother follows him wherever he goes.
    I will go wherever to find a suitable job for me.

    c. Thể cách (Manner):
    AS
    Ví dụ: Do as I told you to do.

    AS IF
    Ví dụ: He talks as if he knew everything about her.
    He dances as if he were a professional dancer.


    d. So sánh (Comparisons):
    AS
    Ví dụ: He is as tall as his brither.
    This bag is as expensive as that one.

    THAN
    Ví dụ: She is more beautiful than her sister.
    She looks fatter than his friend.

    e. Lí do (Reasons):
    AS
    Ví dụ: As it rained very hard, we stopped they games.

    BECAUSE
    Ví dụ: We could not pass the test because we didn't learn hard.
    I didn't meet her because she had left earlier.

    SINCE
    Ví dụ: I must go since she has telephoned three times.


    f. Mục đích (Purposes):
    THAT
    Ví dụ: I work hard that I may succeed in life.

    SO THAT
    Ví dụ: We went very early so that we could catch the last bus.

    IN ORDER THAT
    Ví dụ: We learn French in order to study in France.

    g. Điều kiện (Conditions) :
    IF
    Ví dụ: I will phoe number.

    UNLESS (IF NOT)
    Ví dụ: you will be late unless you set off now.
    Unless you work hard, you will not pass the eams.

    PROVIDED THAT
    Ví dụ: I will pardon him provided that he acknowledge his fault.
    You can enter the room provided that you have the ticket..

    IN CASE
    Ví dụ: You should take an umbrella in case it rains.
    Please take a map with you in case (that) you may get lost.

    h. Sự tương phản, trái ngược:
    ALTHOUGH, THOUGH, EVEN THOUGH
    Ví dụ: Though/even though /although it rained hard, I went out with her.

    AS
    Ví dụ: Rich as he is, his isn't ever happy.

    EVEN IF
    Ví dụ: Even if my watch is right, we will be too late.

    NOT WITH STANDING THAT
    Ví dụ: He is poor not with standing that he works very hard.

    __________________
     



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